Westermark’s Sign

In chest radiography, the Westermark Sign, is a sign that represents a focus of oligemia due to vasoconstriction seen distal to a pulmonary embolus (PE).

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important cause of mortality, particularly among hospitalized patients. Because of the difficulty in diagnosing PE on the basis of clinical and laboratory data, imaging studies play a central role in establishing or excluding this diagnosis. While the chest x-ray is normal  in the majority of PE cases, the Westermark sign is seen in 2% of patients.

Westermark's Sign. Frontal radiograph of a patient with pulmonary embolism showing  increased radiolucency in the upper and middle zones in the left lung due to decreased vascularization.
The sign results from a combination of:
  1. The dilation of the pulmonary arteries proximal to the embolus.
  2. The collapse of the distal vasculature creating the appearance of a sharp cut off on chest radiography.

Radiology And Medical Imaging Arab Board

The Arab Board of Health Specializations.
The Council of Arab Health Ministers founded the Arab Board of Medical Specializations in Kuwait in 1978 by a decision of the Council of Arab Health Ministers of the Arab League.

The first session of the newly established Board was held on January 2, 1979 at which time basic guidelines and the structure of the Board were determined, and headquarters in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, non-profit organization.

It aims to improve health services in the Arab world by raising the level of scientific and practical in various disciplines. In addition to the development of health professional performance and development And promoting skills in the field of health disciplines.

Where to get this certificate is required a balance of adequate training, which allows the doctor to do the role effectively disengagement is not a loss of time and money, and deprive the nation of physician services during the period of his absence for a foreign certificate, in addition to the great difficulties experienced by the doctor when you search for a training center gives him the skill Medical required.

Goals of The Board:

•To work toward the improvement of the health services in the Arab World.
•To set comprehensive and uniform standards for the establishment of postgraduate physician training centers in the various medical specialties.
•To establish a basis for the uniform assessment of training programs and the scientific, technical, and practical proficiency of the physician trainees.

Function of the Board:

•To establish an independent Board for each specialty beginning with the major specialties.
•To establish a certification procedure for each medical specialty.
•To organize teaching and training sessions for the resident physicians in conjunction with teaching institutions in the Arab World.
•To promote the acquisition of continuous medical education and expertise.
•To promote the use of the Arabic language in medical education.
•To publicize the goals of the Board.

Composition of the Board:

•The Supreme Council.
•The Executive Office.
•Individual Scientific Councils for each specialization.
•The Joint Consultative Scientific Council.
•General Secretariat.


Bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, bone tumors, or osteogenesis imperfecta, where the fracture is then properly termed a pathological fracture.
Hip Fracture.
Although broken bone and bone break are common colloquialisms for a bone fracture, break is not a formal orthopedic term.
A crack (not only a break) in the bone is also known as a fracture. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body. There are several different ways in which a bone can fracture; for example a clean break to the bone that does not damage surrounding tissue or tear through the skin is known as a closed fracture or asimple fracture. On the other hand, one that damages surrounding skin or tissue is known as acompound fracture or an open fracture. Compound or open fractures are generally more serious than simple fractures, with a much higher risk of infection. 
The older we get the less force our bones can withstand. Approximately 50% of women and about 20% of men have a fracture after they are 50 years old (Source: National Health Service, UK).
Because children's bones are more elastic, when they do have fractures they tend to be different. Children also have growth plates at the end of their bones - areas of growing bone - which may sometimes be damaged. 

Breakthroughs in Imaging Neurovascular Diseases

Computed Tomography (CT) Urography